Tuesday, 29 November 2011

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Weiner Filter

    The inverse filtering is a restoration technique for deconvolution, i.e., when the image is blurred by a known lowpass filter, it is possible to recover the image by inverse filtering or generalized inverse filtering. However, inverse filtering is very sensitive to additive noise. The approach of reducing one degradation at a time allows us to develop a restoration algorithm for each type of degradation and simply combine them. The Wiener filtering executes an optimal tradeoff between inverse filtering and noise smoothing. It removes the additive noise and inverts the blurring simultaneously.
    The Wiener filtering is optimal in terms of the mean square error. In other words, it minimizes the overall mean square error in the process of inverse filtering and noise smoothing. The Wiener filtering is a linear estimation of the original image. The approach is based on a stochastic framework. The orthogonality principle implies that the Wiener filter in Fourier domain can be expressed as follows:
    where  are respectively power spectra of the original image and the additive noise, and  is the blurring filter. It is easy to see that the Wiener filter has two separate part, an inverse filtering part and a noise smoothing part. It not only performs the deconvolution by inverse filtering (highpass filtering) but also removes the noise with a compression operation (lowpass filtering).
Weiner Filter note uploaded on my blog ajinkyaspeaks.wordpress.com for easy download!!
Just download it from the "Download box" present on ajinkyaspeaks.wordpress.com.

Thursday, 3 November 2011

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Robotics & Artificial Intelligence- Prolog Codes

Prolog is a logical and a declarative programming language. The name itself, Prolog, is short for PROgramming in LOGic. Prolog's heritage includes the research on theorem provers and other automated deduction systems developed in the 1960s and 1970s. The inference mechanism of Prolog is based upon Robinson's resolution principle (1965) together with mechanisms for extracting answers proposed by Green (1968). These ideas came together forcefully with the advent of linear resolution procedures. Explicit goal-directed linear resolution procedures, such as those of Kowalski and Kuehner (1971) and Kowalski (1974), gave impetus to the development of a general purpose logic programming system. The "first" Prolog was "Marseille Prolog" based on work by Colmerauer (1970). The first detailed description of the Prolog language was the manual for the Marseille Prolog interpreter (Roussel, 1975). The other major influence on the nature of this first Prolog was that it was designed to facilitate natural language processing.
Prolog is the major example of a fourth generation programming language supporting the declarative programming paradigm. The Japanese Fifth-Generation Computer Project, announced in 1981, adopted Prolog as a development language, and thereby focused considerable attention on the language and its capabilities. The programs in this tutorial are written in "standard" (University of) Edinburgh Prolog, as specified in the classic Prolog textbook by authors Clocksin and Mellish (1981,1992). The other major kind of Prolog is the PrologII family of Prologs which are the descendants of Marseille Prolog. The reference to Giannesini, et.al. (1986) uses a version of PrologII. There are differences between these two varieties of Prolog; part of the difference is syntax, and part is semantics. However, students who learn either kind of Prolog can easily adapt to the other kind.

Prolog Experiment
Click below to download

Thursday, 29 September 2011

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Booth Algorithm for Signed Binary Multiplication & IEEE Floating point representation

Booth's Algorithm:

It is a powerful algorithm for signing up a number of multiplication. It generates a 2n bit product and it treats both +ve & -ve number uniformly.

Booth's multiplication algorithm is a multiplication algorithm that multiplies two signed binary numbers in two's complement notation. The algorithm was invented by Andrew Donald Booth in 1950 while doing research on crystallography at Birkbeck College in Bloomsbury, London. Booth used desk calculators that were faster at shifting than adding and created the algorithm to increase their speed. Booth's algorithm is of interest in the study of computer architecture

IEEE Floating point representation:

There are several ways to represent real numbers on computers. Fixed point places a radix point somewhere in the middle of the digits, and is equivalent to using integers that represent portions of some unit. For example, one might represent 1/100ths of a unit; if you have four decimal digits, you could represent 10.82, or 00.01. Another approach is to use rationals, and represent every number as the ratio of two integers.
Floating-point representation - the most common solution - basically represents reals in scientific notation. Scientific notation represents numbers as a base number and an exponent. For example, 123.456 could be represented as 1.23456 × 102. In hexadecimal, the number 123.abc might be represented as 1.23abc × 162.
Floating-point solves a number of representation problems. Fixed-point has a fixed window of representation, which limits it from representing very large or very small numbers. Also, fixed-point is prone to a loss of precision when two large numbers are divided.
Floating-point, on the other hand, employs a sort of "sliding window" of precision appropriate to the scale of the number. This allows it to represent numbers from 1,000,000,000,000 to 0.0000000000000001 with ease.
The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Many hardware floating point units use the IEEE 754 standard. The current version, IEEE 754-2008 published in August 2008, includes nearly all of the original IEEE 754-1985 standard and the IEEE Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 854-1987). The international standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 60559:2011 (with identical content to IEEE 754) has been approved for adoption through JTC1/SC 25 under the ISO/IEEE PSDO Agreement and published.

The standard defines:
1. arithmetic formats: sets of binary and decimal floating-point data, which consist of finite numbers (including signed zeros and subnormal numbers), infinities, and special "not a number" values (NaNs)
2. interchange formats: encodings (bit strings) that may be used to exchange floating-point data in an efficient and compact form
3. rounding rules: properties to be satisfied when rounding numbers during arithmetic and conversions
operations: arithmetic and other operations on arithmetic formats
4. exception handling: indications of exceptional conditions (such as division by zero, overflow, etc.)

Booth Algorithm & IEEE representation
You can download the C++ programs for Booth's algorithm & IEEE representation from the download box present alongside.

Tuesday, 20 September 2011

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DSIP University Papers

DSIP papers
Download the Digital Signal And Image Processing question papers from the download box alongside.

Monday, 15 August 2011

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Happy Independence Day

Wednesday, 4 May 2011

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Object Oriented Software Engineering- Hospital Management in Rational Rose

Rational Rose is a tool set produced and marketed by Rational Software Corporation (now owned by IBM).  Rose is an operational tool set that uses the Unified Modeling Language (UML) as its means for facilitating the capture of domain semantics and architecture/design intent.  UML has a number of different notations, allowing the specification of the artifacts of design from many different perspectives and for different objectives during the computer engineering life cycle.  Most of these notations are directly supported through the Rose tool set.

Rational Rose is an object-oriented Unified Modeling Language (UML) software design tool intended for visual modeling and component construction of enterprise-level software applications. In much the same way a theatrical director blocks out a play, a software designer uses Rational Rose to visually create (model) the framework for an application by blocking out classes with actors (stick figures), use case elements (ovals), objects (rectangles) and messages/relationships (arrows) in a sequence diagram using drag-and-drop symbols. Rational Rose documents the diagram as it is being constructed and then generates code in the designer's choice of C++, Visual Basic, Java, Oracle8, Corba or Data Definition Language.

Hospital Management
You can download the Software engineering models for hospital management from the download box alongside. These models were prepared using Rational Rose. 

Tuesday, 3 May 2011

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System Programming & Compiler Construction

Here are all Spcc prog.
Download them from the download box alongside.
Note: If the question has the source prog in c language, & they ask for Uniform symbol table, or literal table, then don't get confused. It is not the prog of Assembler, but of Lexical Analyzer. If it is an assembly lang prog & they ask to find the Sym/lit table, then it is the question of Assembler.

Monday, 2 May 2011

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Advanced MicroProcessors

AMP All Programs
you can download all the programs from the download box alongside

Note: It does not include EFlags

Sunday, 1 May 2011

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Advanced MicroProcessor Reservation Table

Reservation table

1.         Collision vector=(100)
  Simple cycles: (2),(4),(1,4),(1,1,4),(2,4)etc
  Greedy cycle: (1,4,2,4),(1,1,4,2,4)etc 
  Max throughput=0.5
2.       . Collision vector=(10)
  Simple cycles: (3),(1,3)
  Greedy cycle: (1,3,3),(3,1,3)
  Max throughput=0.5
3.         Collision vector=(110)
  Simple cycles: (4),(1,4)
  Greedy cycle: (1,4,4),(4,1,4)
  Max throughput=0.4
4.         Collision vector=(11)
  Simple cycles: (3)
  Greedy cycle: ---
  Max throughput=0.33
 Note: The above answers were found to be correct by me. However I don't take the responsibility of this being fail-proof!!  

Friday, 29 April 2011

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Lexical Analyzer

Download the program for Lexical Analyzer from the download box alongside
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OOSE Practicals

Question Bank for OOSE Practical Exam
1.      Airline Reservation System
2.      Railway Reservation System
3.      Nokia Gallery
4.      Banking System
5.      Big Bazaar
6.      Bus Reservation System
7.      Movie Ticket Reservation
8.      Hospital Management System
9.      Star Plus Serial Schedule Management System
10.  SUC Event Management
11.  Hotel Management
12.  IPL Matches
Following diagrams will be asked based on above systems…
1.  Class Diagram
2.  Sequence Diagram
3.  Collaboration Diagram
4.  State Transition Diagram
5.  Activity Diagram
6.  Use Case Diagram

Only System name would be given…
Example: Class diagram for Hospital Management System.
Note: Students first have to write the problem statement.. Then draw d diagram on answer sheet nd then perform pracs..

Thursday, 28 April 2011

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Android Seminar
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Assemblers (Pass1)

Programs for Pass1 assembler:
1. Pass 1(a):

2. Pass 1(b):

3. Pass 1(c):

NOTE:While entering the code use '|' as space & ';' for next line.

Wednesday, 20 April 2011

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Seminar Report

Android Operating System

Thursday, 14 April 2011

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ACN Practical exam list

ACN Practical Exam 2011

1.  Install Web Server
Site Name:
Contents of the site:

2. Implement Virtual Hosting (name based)
IP Address:
Site Name:
Contents of the Site:

3.  Implement Virtual Hosting (IP based)
IP Address:
Site Name:
Contents of the Site:

4. Analysis of packet captured (UDP)
Mention the port numbers of the captured packets

5. Analysis of packet captured (TCP)
Mention the flag status of the captured packets
6. Analysis of packet captured (ARP)
Mention the IP address of the source and destination hosts

7. Analysis of packet captured (IP)
Mention the IP address of the source and destination hosts

8. Implement Sliding Window Protocol (Go-Back-N)

9. Implement Sliding Window Protocol (Selective Repeat)

10.  Implement Group Chat Server (2 Clients)

11. Implement Group Chat Server (3 Clients)

12. Implement  multicast routing protocol DVMRP with following topology and groups

          Node ____ is the source.
          CBR traffic starts at ______ time.
          Node ____ joins the group at _______ time.
          Node ____ joins the group at _______ time.
          Node ____ leaves the group at _______ time.

Friday, 8 April 2011

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Superscaler Program

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Data & Web Mining

DWM Programs in java
Download the Data & Web Mining programs from the download box alongside.

Wednesday, 6 April 2011

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Arithmetic Pipelining for multiplicaion

This the final prog for arithmetic pipelining. It works upto 8bit X 8bit multiplication. There were some minor changes in the datatypes of some variables as compared to the previous prog. 

Saturday, 2 April 2011

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K-Mean & Nearest Neighbour Programs

Kmean & Nearest Neighbour Prog in java

1. Kmean:

2. Nearest Neighbour:

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ANDROID report
Download the report from the download box alongside 

Points for seminar:
1) intro
2) Innovative features
3) open source

4) arch

5) comparison
6) system mgmt
7) life cycles
8) security
9) advantages

10) future pros

Thursday, 31 March 2011

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Go Back N - Sender & Receiver

1. Go Back N Sender:

2. Go Back N Receiver:

Tuesday, 29 March 2011

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Infix to Postfix Conversion

Following is the java code for converting from infix to postfix:

Saturday, 26 March 2011

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Packet Sniffer

ACN Packet Sniffer

Our sir told to use some packetsniffer other than Wireshark or Colasoft. So I used Smartsniff.
Click the link below for snapshots

For snapshots of Wireshark click the link below
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Apriori Algorihm

Apriori Algorithm:

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Computer Graphics programs in C++

The term computer graphics includes almost everything on computers that is not text or sound. Today almost every computer can do some graphics, and people have even come to expect to control their computer through icons and pictures rather than just by typing.
Here in our lab at the Program of Computer Graphics, we think of computer graphics as drawing pictures on computers, also called rendering. The pictures can be photographs, drawings, movies, or simulations -- pictures of things which do not yet exist and maybe could never exist. Or they may be pictures from places we cannot see directly, such as medical images from inside your body.

Computer graphics are graphics created using computers and the representation of image data by a computer specifically with help from specialized graphic hardware and software.

The interaction and understanding of computers and interpretation of data has been made easier because of computer graphics. Computer graphic development has had a significant impact on many types of media and have revolutionized animation, movies and the video game industry.

CG Programs
Most of the prog have been included.
click on the link below to download
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Jigsaw puzzle

Jigsaw puzzle html
Download the Jigzaw puzzle from the download box alongside.

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Economic Crisis 2008 Seminar Presentation

This is the Seminar Presentation that we prepared for the Economic Crisis that started in 2008
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Sudoku puzzle in javascript

Download the Code for Sudoku puzzle for 3X3, 6X6, & 9X9 from the download box alongside.
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Computer Graphics mini project/ Screen Saver code

1. Car Screensaver:

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Packet garbage and analysis using Wireshark

On the Internet, packet filtering is the process of passing or blocking packets at a network interface based on source and destination addresses, ports, or protocols. The process is used in conjunction with packet mangling and Network Address Translation (NAT). Packet filtering is often part of a firewall program for protecting a local network from unwanted intrusion.
In a software firewall, packet filtering is done by a program called a packet filter. The packet filter examines the header of each packet based on a specific set of rules, and on that basis, decides to prevent it from passing (called DROP) or allow it to pass (called ACCEPT).
There are three ways in which a packet filter can be configured, once the set of filtering rules has been defined. In the first method, the filter accepts only those packets that it is certain are safe, dropping all others. This is the most secure mode, but it can cause inconvenience if legitimate packets are inadvertently dropped. In the second method, the filter drops only the packets that it is certain are unsafe, accepting all others. This mode is the least secure, but is causes less inconvenience, particularly in casual Web browsing. In the third method, if the filter encounters a packet for which its rules do not provide instructions, that packet can be quarantined, or the user can be specifically queried concerning what should be done with it. This can be inconvenient if it causes numerous dialog boxes to appear, for example, during Web browsing.
Wireshark is a network packet analyzer. A network packet analyzer will try to capture network packets and tries to display that packet data as detailed as possible.
You could think of a network packet analyzer as a measuring device used to examine what's going on inside a network cable, just like a voltmeter is used by an electrician to examine what's going on inside an electric cable (but at a higher level, of course).
Here are some examples people use Wireshark for:
  • network administrators use it to troubleshoot network problems
  • network security engineers use it to examine security problems
  • developers use it to debug protocol implementations
  • people use it to learn network protocol internals
Download the manual from the download box alongside.

Friday, 25 March 2011

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Optimism Vs Pessimism

Is Your Glass Half Full or Half Empty?
Are you a glass half full or a glass half empty kind of person? Does it really make a difference? I think it makes a huge difference in the quality of your life. Both optimists and pessimists contribute to our society.  The optimist invents the airplane and the pessimist the parachute. Two men look out through the same bars: One sees the mud, & one the stars.
Optimism can lead to accomplishment. If you think something is possible, you will generally work harder to achieve it. Believing in the positive allows you to feel good about life in general. The average pencil is seven inches long, with just a half-inch eraser. Being optimistic can lead to an overall mood of happiness, and enjoyment in life. While most optimists understand that not everything works out as planned, they recognize that some good can come from the unexpected.
Pessimism can lead to defeat and despair. A pessimist is a man who looks both ways before crossing a one way street. When you are doubtful about your success, you tend not to try as hard - which then leads to failure. A pessimist is somebody who complains about the noise when opportunity knocks. Approaching everyday tasks with a negative attitude quickly leads to a negative outlook on life.
I don’t think many cases of eyestrain have been developed by looking on the bright side of things. I think it is this positive upbeat attitude that allows us to be productive and love the work we do. I truly believe that our optimistic attitude is what provides us with our sense of fulfillment, and improves our overall quality of life.
Between the optimist and the pessimist, the difference is droll. The optimist sees the doughnut; the pessimist the hole! Winston Churchill once said, “The pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity. The optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty”.

We all have moments of optimism and pessimism; what it comes down to is how the scale is tipped. Is your cup half full or half empty? One should realize that when it is dark enough, you can see the stars.

So from here on, when you face any challenge in life just say